CONSIDERATIONS ON THE GLOBAL ECONOMICAL RESTRUCTURING AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE TERRITORY

                          

                                                           

ULYSSES DA CUNHA BAGGIO

Geografia Humana

 Depto. de Geografia - FFLCH - USP

Rua Dom Lúcio Antunes, 424, apto.703 – Coração Eucarístico- Belo Horizonte - MG.

                                                      CEP: 30535-630 .  e-mail: ulybaggio@uol.com.br  

                                                            Phone Number: (31)3375-7675

Article made in 2001July.

 

 

ABSTRACT:

The article intends to discuss the economic restructuring process in terms of globalization and its territorial impacts, and to evaluate the relations between the economical and political dimension of this social-spatial dynamics.

 

KEYWORDS:

Globalization, Nation-State, territory, fragmentation, become civilized process

 

 

 careful look on the social-spatial group of changes that have been happening in the contemporary world in course of the evolution and the accelerated diffusion of the globalization - especially starting from the Cold War end and the Soviet block destruction in the end of eighties (wall of Berlin fall  and Germany reunite) and beginning of 90’s (Soviet Union disintegration)– it reveals us a new geopolitical and geo-economical view marked by an intense and complex space restructuring/section to the world scale, showing like a factual mosaic of social-territorial situations. This in course globalize dynamics does not authorize, however, definitive and ended evaluations as, for example, the one of the “end of the history” and of the apotheosis of the monetary world “democracy” (FUKUYAMA, 1992), or still the one of the end of employments (RIFKIN, 1995), the end of the State-nation (OHMAE, 1996) etc..

In different ways and forms but in particular by media, it frequently arrives us images and versions about globalization and its several society and territory implications, which are strongly ideologist, orientated and conditioned by the market values, justifying and legitimating it. However, mainly in the academic environment, more critical character studies, that tries to apprehend the contradictions of the process and its social and territorial perverse implications constituting the great exception in a larger universe where this theme has been treated.

The globalize action vector started involving and articulating in different levels and intensities the whole planet; however, its accomplishment in several States-nations ambits happens unequally and contradictory form benefiting those countries whose have economic and technological power, and so those ones that have military power - once that international politics are still dominated by the Ratzels States forms (territorial States), what involve an strategic-military capacity, more important in the international power relationships as we could verify in the War of Golf episode that served as a clue to the enormous capacity  force and intervention of  the United States.

In this geography inequality ambit intensified and enlarged by the global capitalism, it increases the existence of an expressive group of territories marked by the poverty and for high levels of social exclusion, that sometimes looks like a whole country and sometimes as regional and local fractions of that. Although reached by the globalization flows, the positioning of these countries in the new world (dis)order is precisely as commodities suppliers and manufactured importers taking a weak reach to consumption and enormous restrictions about the scientific and technological development. Considering among other factors the depreciation process that the commodities had tried some decades before in the international market, we can infer the enormous fragility situation of these countries in the international economy scenery. The exchange terms degradation undoubtedly have operated as an edge force of these States-nations in the economy-world. They can be identified most of all in Africa (with prominence for Africa Subsaarian's area, where they increase among other cases the ones of Somalia, Rwanda, and Mozambique), Latin America (portions of the South Mexico, territories center and South American precarious) and Asia extensions (mainly in the south portion as, for instance, Bangladesh and India; and in the southeast, could be mentioned Cambodia, Vietnam etc), where they last long and they have been reproducing true social-space enclaves, characterized by the lack and even technical and social basic infrastructures deprivation  because of the poverty generalization as well as for high levels of social-space exclusion. These conditions make those territories progressively marginalized in the global economy, more and more concentrated and centralized. The ties among globalization hegemonic actors (transnational companies) and the impoverished territorial configurations progressively change on intensity and quality, usually in detriment of these. In this universe the exception can be attributed to the economical elites of these poor States-nations, practically the only segments of its social structures that make possible insert forms in the global economy scenery. The other social segments because they live daily every kind of  privations are most of time marginalized by the globalization concentration logic, selective and excluding. Bigger or smaller intensity, everywhere of the planet are reached, direct or indirectly by the global dynamics vectors (mainly of information and  values–as ideologies, consumption, habits, etc), but not all the social segments, mainly in the cases of social-space construct marked by the widespread poverty dissemination (for instance, of most of the African countries). According to Milton SANTOS (2001: 257),

 

In the territory, we can admit the existence of areas in that one we can talk about an absolute globalization ‘' and other where  there is just a partial globalization. The first ones are areas of full globalization. In them there are vectors of the current modernity concentration with small compensation of what it takes to the actors united action global possibilities or what we call ‘globalized’. In those areas, the tendency is that production, circulation, distribution and information are corporate; it means the principal demand comes from those companies.

In those areas–he continues– of fuller globalization presence there is a type of denser lacy of great globalization vectors what means predisposed actors to a logic and a movement that stand out the technical and political processes derived. They are  pure money vectors servile to its designs: modern productive chains, products exported, speculating activities etc. In the areas of globalization less important presence, those characteristics disappear or they are reduced second an entire extension range and intensity.

 

So this kind of interpretation suggests us that frequent and mistaken generalizations are avoided about the width dynamics and globalization flows intensity. That way we could say that places are indeed globalized but not the geographical-space a territorial abstraction. The group of the places gives the geographical-space concrete. Then world would not be configured as a global geographical-space, but formed by “places of globalization” articulate in net ,  situation through which the interaction interdependence and interconnection levels capacity between states and places grows and increase.

When we consider that globalization contains in its movement progressive levels of commercial and productive articulation - however unequal in its occurrence - at the same time that marginalized social-space configurations are (re)produce because of that, it is plausible to considerate about the a fragility occurrence maybe an inadequacy of town terminology - globalization – in some of its studies, once we have  recognized a positive abuse in its uses and approaches too much general concerning the group of processes and changes that are developing in world’s economy, geopolitical and cultural view, which are frequently thought as a road of one-way, right and definitive, as there were not indeterminations in history, or even possibilities which we could try to make another globalization form (SANTOS, 2000), not the one that is in course, of the overbearing market, but a globalization with more social character, result from mutual and community actions, which man is the target and not the arrow, the instrument. More than in other phases of becoming civilized capitalist process  market acquired a larger centrality in detriment of man. We’ve tried a kind of wild mercantile in almost all the social reality instances where market imposes its own logic and values, and the man's humanity is degraded, it retracts, becoming residual. We understand this situation consolidates creating a potentially favorable environment tensions and conflicts to proliferation of several shades. Or we could say the most intense and quickly instance is affirmed in this process is the economical one relational to the political sphere, not just signifying an asynchrony between them but a disturbance factor in the international relationships, because of the regulation demands resultant from that. We are undoubtedly talking about a giant challenge to States in the international geopolitical picture.

Approaches about globalization that conceive it as a road of one-way take place as much in the academic universe as in media especially, what does not mean, however, that we can make generalizations. However, it is not the about doing here a noticed distorted inventory. The best conception for our perspective concerning the globalization phenomenon is the one of the fragmented globalization. If globalization promotes articulation, interdependence, and integration among markets, countries, areas, places, and societies (cohesion movement), at the same time it deflagrates territories and societies fragmentations  (fragmentation movement), affecting, among other things, the related factors that of identity and topfïly between society and lived geographical-space. We understand that this contradictory dynamics presents two important implications: the precipitation of affirmative resistance actions of values and local identities (localism), what takes to fragmentation, and the alienation levels  man/environment increase  given by the overpowering process of geographical-space fraction/mercantile.

As a consequence of notable economic activities territorial changeability and dynamic and job market that the global process produces, a big workers amount is daily impelled to accomplish - above all because of the unemployment and of the low wages -  a certain frequent work place change and  home move in numerous geographical-space scales, intensifying the migratory flows and carting the formation what we could designate urban nomadic, phenomenon that according to what we think it is one more fact among other indicators existent of urban crisis worsening what certainly rebounds negatively in the quality life level in the cities, especially in the metropolitan geographical-spaces, where the problem generally shows more intensity. An useful interpretation in relation to this geographical-space mobility presupposes the of the conventional and limited approach suppurate that conceives strictly in statistical-demographic terms that focuses it like flow and displacement (traffic) from a place to another, or like population distribution. It is not about neglecting the importance of the numbers, but of noticing that by the restricted reach of this cold and abstract perspective we can loose something that for us is  fundamentally important to analysis: the social agents' identification and qualification that participate in that dynamics, aspects that are precisely locate in the social drama and its daily lived dimension, agents that are not mere numeric abstraction, but human beings belonging to classes or specific social segments that have values and world visions. So a it is necessary a treat that recovers in the analysis process aspects that involve a new difficult transition and adaptation (that not always happens) to the new place/environment of life and social reproduction situations when it can happen, according to the case, the compromising and even the breaking of a social tissue and social-geographical-space entails in relation to the place where the exit is. This fact implicates in several embarrassments, above all for those social segments of low purchasing power. We could admit, however, that eventually the opposite is true it means the accomplishment of a transition process without pain it being an exception in most of the cases that involve these social segments. And it is not by chance that many migrants take with themselves, and reproduce in the destiny place (temporary or not), cultural and economic lines and practices etc. that they use to develop in their origin places (the party, the music, the craft etc.), disclosers of effective adaptation strategies and even of these migrants' survival. The giant populations territorial mobility specifically migratory flows is evidenced as an important characteristic of the accelerated globalization on the current times, as they contribute, among other aspects, for the alteration of the social-cultural view of the places, being able even to define again, printing them new social-geographical-space identities.

Karl MARX recognizes the beginning of the economic globalization from the 2a. English Industrial Revolution specifically in the Communist Manifesto, when talking about the capitalist development in North America role. In the competition ambit he had identified the structuring vectors of capitalist accumulation process: the capitals concentration and centralization. Marx used to say that there was an immovable in Industrial Capitalist Production Way what means that capitalism pursues growing levels of productivity through manpower’s intensification above all by the technology incorporation in the productive process, predestined to produce progressively in larger scales thanks to the competition, leading to the growth of productivity levels, increasing the production without increasing your costs. The result of the process is the earnings: productivity earning to the capitalist and to the consumer (consume at lower prices). However, nor all the capitalists get to reach such won of productivity, just part of them in certain places, once the competition is selective and unequal, taking to the concentration and, then, to the centralization capitals. That empiric result of this movement is the contention of entrance of new capitals in varied economical sections (in each one of them), one time that who controls the process are the great capitals, competition terms definition, example to what happens to the profit rate imposing, therefore, a progressive difficulty to the entrance of new competitors in market. Here it is the root of monopolies and oligopolies. When that is added by world potencies politics, the result is the imperialism: national companies turned transnational that eliminate another of the competition horizon around the world, taking to the subordination of national savings by great companies.

Facing hipermobility and prominence acquired by the financial capital in the global economy proportionate for the financial deregulation, we will have the dollar’s world-wide as well as the arising and the development of pension bottoms (from companies, groups, corporations and individuals), that way giving an enormous volume of money in the finance market aiming valorization. That is the way economical globalization becomes essentially by financial sponsorship (CHESNAIS, 1996), it is not only about the companies profit and bank capital, but it’s about a financial capital that is abstract, that is not properly for wealth generation, but for speculation. It comes from this movement a form of money that is not capital, but only money, virtual money originated from a brutal saving process in the richest countries. This process evolution acquires its maturity mainly starting from the nineties, taking to the telematic revolution –fact that will allow the money fluidity  (financial investments) in real time -, and to the science and technology development acceleration -essential factors to the consolidation of a scientific-technician-informational capitalism. Taking account that we can reach innovations by the technological research ambit (biotechnologies, software, fine chemistry, new materials engineering etc), made by the best world researchers located mainly in the rich countries, we can say that innovation practically could only be done by a select group of companies in the world which, acting in the top technological innovation, are in the capital mega-accumulation apex of the planet. It means there is an explicit hierarchy, staying the rich countries in the top, one more aspect of the brutal capital centralization. This fact, undoubtedly, imposes enormous difficulties to the poor countries in the highly competitive scenery of the world economy, where the technological variable figures as a main condition for inserting in more favorable landings.

By this analysis globalization translates then, as a genuinely capitalist process where step by step takes place the capitalist productive chain territorial diffusion in a world scale, given by the transnational companies action and the state bureaucracy - the major agents of globalization -, above all after Second World War, when at the end of the sixties initiates financial deregulation, and consolidated with the real socialism destruction, an occasion that will provide a new pulse to this phenomenon in world ambit, becoming commercial flows increase (mainly among the richest countries and developed) of information and transnational companies (global companies) action area expansion including its geographical irradiation to the countries of the old socialist block. We are talking about a hegemonic geo-historical capitalist way around the planetary space, strongly impelled by the economical and technological integration of national territories. From that comes a new dynamics of social and productive transformation, configuring a wide differentiation and new definition process of  work international division in the last decades.

We can see that way however the coming of emergent forces that have been trying to insert in globalization in an independent way concerning to the international economical power poles where the State have fundamental importance as an inducting force to the dynamism reached by these States-nations (Asian Tigers, China, Brazil, India etc) it means “the State role in the economy knowledge about politics.” Concerning that WALLERSTEIN (1979:72) tells us that, “the immediate and direct interest of the State as a political machine in the market control (intern or international) is larger than in Core States blushes and in the periphery ones, since the Practically Periphery States cannot depend on the market to maximize short term its markup” (cit. by BECKER, Bertha & EGLER, Cláudio, 1994: 28). The regional potencies recent eruption leads to an almost periphery formation in the international geopolitical system defined another time the classic model center-periphery configuring a world economy new territorial dimension. This intermediate segment or in the WALLERSTEIN terms, this “third category” would play a part of great importance, not as much for the economical aspect, but mainly for the politician one, once it would favor the “world system stability.” He marks: “the third category existence means precisely that the superior stratum doesn't face the unified opposition to all the other ones because the intermediate stratum is explored as much as it is an explorer. That’s why the economical role is not so important and it has been changing along the several historical apprenticeships of the modern world system” (1979: 21/3) (Same). However we have to consider the most recent capitalist crisis manifestations related, above all, to the finance market vicissitudes that can affect the bases of this new world geographical-space built. Some authors, as the German essayist and sociologist Robert KURZ, affirm that the synchronized stocks exchange fall that has been happening along the last times signals to a larger capitalism crisis  deeper and wider that is still coming...

Because of this intense dynamics and geographical-space mobility acquired by the recent capital came from the transports and communications development and mainly of the information technologies treatment (world scale nets creators), as well as the deregulation measures adoption about the flow and the financial investments starting from the end of the sixties globalization consolidates then with the financial capital prominence as well as a notable increase of the international changes volume in superior rhythm to the production growth. Using UNCTAD data, Renato BAUMANN (1996: 40) marks that “ in the three decades between 1950 and 1980, the annual world trade medium rate growth systematically overcame the production growth rhythm between 2 and 3 percentage points, elevating the opening degree of most world economies.” An globalized economy consolidated, with companies coalitions and associations with an unprecedented intensity in capitalism history , as well as the existence of independence margins to the financial capital movement, results in capital lost of control by the State, paying attention on the fact that the companies capital does not integrate the national capital stock anymore, once that it is progressively internationalized. From this movement we can get two strongly interlinked aspects: the growing competition on the market and on capitalist integration establishment patterns. Supra national (European Union, Naphtha, Apec, Mercosul etc) economical blocks formation and proliferation are explicit manifestations of those integration strategies in the international geoeconomical scenery, not just indicating a new pattern of capitalism organization as well as the fact that globalization takes place markets more regional, without opposition among them–as some used to believe -, but a complementary relationship, once this regional constitutes the geoeconomical through it moves ahead. We have to take a look however that although the formation common markets assists to economical imperatives decisions and its constitution process result of a State politic action, strategy that next to others provides its internationalization performance.

Robert KURZ exemplifies the l globalization process of capital with the Japanese assembly factories diffusion in Europe and Latin America, whose function is specifically surrounded to the assembly of almost ready components with minimum local resources. In the international trade ambit its operations will be seen as export from Mexico to United States, from England to Spain etc. In the globalization accomplishment conditions a producer can be buy his raw material in any part of the world where its prices are more attractive, to implant his productive unit where the labor is qualified and cheap priority where fiscal and infra-structural advantages offered by the governments are compensatory, to later make the merchandising commercialization around several parts of the world. This geographical hipermobility acquired by the globalized capital constrains and define again the countries intern economic politics generating a governmental disorder about the production and the commercialization. In the transnational companies researches section because of the complex relationships that they establish to each other, it is very difficulty to identify who is projecting something, fact that leads to the products identity fragmentation as to the own productive process fragmentation. This productive fragmentation not only shows by the export or import of consumption goods operations or investments among several national savings, but also by a new division of work inside the own transnational companies. And when the State intends to impose limits to the wild action of these companies in the market game  they react frequently with the abandoning country threat. Another originated problem to State from the intense globalized capital mobility/volatility is the public revenues compromising that can even decrease. However this situation contains an important contradiction once the globalized capital contrarily to the common sense impressions maintains a dependent relationship to the State. In KURZ terms, this capital “depends more than ever of a functional infrastructure (ports and airports, highways, transport systems and communication, schools, universities etc.), that as before should be organized for State initiative.” In these conditions, capital “removes from the State power the indispensable financial means to the own globalization development” (Folha de Sao Paulo, 1995: 5-9).

It is not necessary to go very far to see that globalization development has rash implications. The capital logic reproduction determines that its action is guided by the growing advantages obtaining in the called “profitability zones”, which are mutants face to the constant capital oscillations in the geographical space. Because of this logic exporting becomes the word of order to the globalized economy. This activity presupposes constant integrations that invariably owe to be compensatory, what imposes the selective mark in its own execution. It means that those countries, or regional fractions of them, that do not show conditions to make possible its own insert in the globalized market – like many poor South countries with population disarray problems - they are predestined to be at the margin, excluded of the called globalization benefits. Geographical-spaces that shows the widespread underdevelopment mark which are deprived or precarious endowed with basic technical and social infrastructures, which reveal unfavorable socioeconomic indicators progressively stop being interesting to the globalized capitals, whose are avid to establish advantageous and lucrative relationships. Presupposing the intensive technology use that this kind of capital is in its essence incompatible to the poverty. Then we can consider that in the capitalism hysterical competitive logic limits, the social-geographical-space exclusion levels can intensify in alarming proportions for the unemployment and poverty worsening levels.

This reality becomes still gloomier when we bring to the analysis, as before mentioned, the population growth problem and its reflexes on the societies life conditions. Our conception about the population growth subject is not based in the neo-Malthusian perspective presuppositions that attributes the economical and social crisis existence responsibility to the population growth. We refuted this interpretation, although we recognize the negative influence that the population growth has on the socioeconomic reality in the environment in the big urban centers daily etc. Countries that show high birth rate rates affirm the neo-Malthusians have turn out to be dependent what would hinder it and even would disable the development pulse becoming an obstacle. We sustained the idea that the population increase problem is not in its own growth but essentially in the rhythm that it has been having in some “countries in development”, where the preoccupying levels of population growth more the poverty configure a social-geographical-space picture potentially explosive and dangerous.

Paul KENNEDY (l993: 19) observes that the reach that the disparities regional consequences can have face to the population growth rhythm now constitutes its more critical aspect. The base of that understanding is in the verification that the demographic patterns are differentiated, as well as they are differentiated people that concreted those patterns, being verified several unevenness where some population are growing quickly, other stagnating, and other still in absolute decline. This unbalances “has influenced the way which several races of globe see each other”, at the same time when “they affect the international and national politics, the social fabric, politics to feed, energetic and migratory.”

Although it has been happening a population growth rates decrease in the world because of the general fecundity rates decline – For the future we can also see the decrease of the family medium size face to the urbanization process intensification and its consequences on the birth rate - nevertheless it is verified that the population growth will continue expressive in terms of vegetative growth, once the procreation level is superior to the mortality one. So in 2025 the Earth population will be approximately of 8,5 billion inhabitants, having other estimates that point 9,4 billion and approximately l0 billion for the same period. It is possible to foresee that if the world population comes stabilizing around 10 billion people, there will be a progressive pressure of States about not renovate natural resources reservations of the planet, however not having “warranties that the scientists creative reaction' will be enough to compensate that additional obligation” (SAMUELSON, 1994: 3-7).

But what could be the population growth such alarming reason that have been seen at some countries around the world? Paul KENNEDY answers this subject saying us that in these countries of predominantly agrarian societies they try, for the first time in their history, a significant mortality rates reduction these countries historically have introduced high rates as much on mortality as on fecundity (1993:21). He still shows us an “irony” aspect in the “demographic explosion”, subject once 

 

It is mainly the result of Occidental practices of health attendance especially vaccination and antibiotics as well as the DDT use to reduce malaria transmitted by the mosquito. As the mortality rates have strongly decline after 1960 the number of children who survives to the seven years have increased quickly; besides, men and women started having larger life expectation thanks to the production of victuals improvement. Looking back and especially keeping in our minds the Europe experience in the XIX century this demographic explosion was totally expectably. The perfectly natural yesterday desire of reducing the infant mortality in the in development world has resulted in non intentional consequences today this time involving numbers higher than those imagined by Malthus (1993: 22).

 

With no doubts that the accelerated population growth have awful affects on environment, a great concern appears to the present days and especially to the close future, when it is recognized that before the growth preoccupying seen in the poor and in development countries, they will not assure the sustainability of this population increase face to the current consumption levels practiced at the rich countries, where the per capita consumption indexes are invariably higher than we can verify in the South countries. For example expanding our visibility to this problem, United States petroleum consumption gets a fourth part of the total production having only 4% of the world population. Or still “a medium American baby represents twice a Swedish child's environmental damage, three times of an Italian, 13 times of a Brazilian, 35 times of an Indian and 280 (!) Chadiana or Haitian child because their consumption level will be bad forever. It is not a tranquilizing statistics for anybody endowed with conscience” (KENNEDY, 1993: 29).

The environmental problem therefore, in its multiple nuances, links directly to the consumption patterns unbalances between rich and poor countries being in the first ones the consume culture almost generalized and strongly impelled by the favorable acquisitive patterns, continuous and daily spread by the communication vehicles. At its side we verified that the population contingents amplification in South still turns more dramatic the poverty levels situation in that part of the world, where we can see like its most important problems the hunger (and also the undernourished) and its consequences, dramatic expressions of the human existence whose are not limited only to Ethiopia, Sudan, Sahel, Mozambique and Bangladesh (away in these territories it is chronic), but also in the central areas of great urban centers and in its outlying sections. Vacating Human beings scenes along the streets of cities begging and looking for food in garbage recipients have been more and more common constituting empiric evidences of the levels worsening assumed by the poverty that for many has become misery. Related to this dramatic reality there is the serious problem of fundamental nutrients missing to the human organism, mainly in the childhood. For instance the iodine and protein lack among other evils that can provoke to the health produce irreversible mental disturbances unfortunately condemning millions of lives to the not critical of social exclusion for the biological impossibility to cerebral potentialities development what represents enormous embarrassments to the educational acting. The hunger problem and its implications are mainly important when the social exclusion and the poverty levels increase with the process of technological and productive restructuring progress requesting urgent and priority treatment in the government programs social development and at the same time an urgent and necessary mentality change on the economical agents part  - especially the big ones -, what should be like taking larger responsibilities in the most lacking communities' social promotion. The millions of bodies and brains seriously committed by nutritional lacks - among other so many lacks that mark the poverty universe  - is figured on these globalization times like a cash biological impact, sketching a gloomy contours and disastrous consequences reality.

It is estimated that at the present time there are at least 800 million (!) of human beings that live the chronic hunger in the planet. United States Wordwatch Institute Report recently published foresees a world’s victuals supplies volume fall in for next forty years, what unfortunately would lead to a huge hunger problem intensification mainly malnutrition (alimentary lack) and malnutrition (proteins, vitamins or mineral salts quantitative deficit). Among the responsible factors to that situation we could point the fishing activity decline, the erosive processes in the fertile lands thanks to the urbanization intensification and the modern technologies exhaustion whose according to the report face to the high population growth levels verified at the countries South they will not be able to assure this picture reversion that is coming if we consider the fact that as rich countries as the poor ones still practice in wide scale the use of ecological condemnable technologies of natural resources exploration. The tropical forests deforestation accelerated rhythm the have provoked through the expansion of the agricultural activity, firewood crop for energy ends, woods exploration and extensive livestock, uncontrolled and systematically accomplished contains serious social and environment damages as the field poverty intensification, rural exodus, soils erosion and exhaustion, climatic alterations etc. Face to that situation, it becomes fundamental to create a group of actions implement that integrate to the widest fight for citizenship movement where it could stand out the agrarian reform (in the places it is necessary) with technical consultant ship and warranty of credits to the beneficiaries - not getting confused agrarian reform here with politics establishments the incentive to the made by family agriculture; the biotechnology use principally in tropical areas, that are rich in biological ingredients; progressive taxation of imposed on unproductive lands, especially the latifundium; abusive leases prohibition among others.

Paul KENNEDY (1993:31) still convoke us to pay attention on the possible “impacts” in the national safety of those countries that try fecundity and birth decline rates what is verified at several Western Europe countries a thing that along time indeed can implicate in a military cashes significant reduction on this countries same ones. The problem is constituted when it combines this previous variable to the fact that those countries are coming immigrants' from poor countries preferential objectives. Considering instabilities and uncertainties that hover on the current world daily economical and geopolitical a possible military contingents retraction surely constitutes a reason of great apprehension for the rulers and their safety systems. Some areas case around the world that have been trying demographic-population turbulence situations as the ones we can observe in Central America, Asian Southeast, Afghanistan/ Cashmere, Middle East, areas close to the Soviet Union, the Africa Horn among other cases. It reveals as a preoccupying and lowering reality, to the developed countries once those areas shows in common “fast growth young populations with social and economical expectations repressed.” Therefore, the population growth associated to the globalization advancement/speed unchains a group formation of potentially conflicts generating situations problem that if it is not urgent and appropriately agreement, will make to throw countless reasons to believe that the crisis tendency in course is the social-geographical-space barbarism unavoidable. The desperate search for the globalization disinherited by survival conditions in several geographical-spaces is already a reality in fast evolution/expansion.

In that context international migrations have been winning some prominence in the governments' of the rich countries great concerns calendar in the middle of which Germany, France, England, the United States, Japan, and Australia. If along the 50’s and 60’s (economical growth period) many European countries stimulated the coming of originating foreign manpower from Portugal, Mezzogiorno (south Italy), Turkey, ex-Yugoslavia, from north Africa etc, today those countries struggle with the disarray problem that those population flows have acquired once the great part of workers that had drove that direction had taken their families what along time bring about the statistical foreigners contingents formation had grown more than they expect creating a significant infra-structural pressure at the receiving countries. Let us still take a look at the cultural shocks among the immigrants and receiving countries portions population that not rare result in mutual strangeness reactions, discrimination and conflicts, especially when they are poor immigrants what most of time does not happen for whom are rich or have some kind of social projection. Nevertheless rejection cases happen although in less important degree. About that Hans Magnus ENZENSBERGER (1993: 115) tells us that

 

The more qualified the immigrants are, the less reservations they find. The Indian astrophysicist, the huge Chinese architect, the black African Nobel's Award winner are welcome all over the world. The rich ones are also never mentioned in this context; nobody questions their movement freedom. For the Hong Kong merchants the British passport acquisition does not face any problem. From any country immigrants Swiss citizenship is also just about price. No one ever objected any to the Brunei sultan's color skin. Where the bank accounts are healthy xenophobia disappears as in a sleight of hand. But the foreigners are still more foreign if they go poor.

 

That is evidence that discrimination and racial intolerance happen most of the time when we talk about poor immigrants and ethnic different. Frequently rich foreigners are social columns and communication vehicles object, guests for parties, filming and pictures, fashion parades, publicity performance (of drink, automobiles, sporting material etc), a lot of times presenting certain peculiar tone and even of “knock about” in their treatment.

Although discrimination is officially forbidden in the hosts countries it is verified that especially in relation to those poor immigrants there is “a true native feeling” against their communities - “against Indian and Pakistani in Grã-Britain, Algerians and Moroccans in France, Turks in Germany - and in some United States parts against Latin-American and Asian immigrants” (KENNEDY, 1993: 38-9). ENZENSBERGER (1995:27) however observes that xenophobia shows as “an universal phenomenon”, not being exclusive of Germans, French etc.

We know Europe as well as other parts of the world (United States, for instance) countries have been demonstrating enormous concern on the uncontrolled migrations. However that concern is revealed according to KENNEDY (1993: 37-8) as one more “history irony” once in own Europe in particular in the Industrial Revolution context - that provoked pronounced population increases - it was one of the largest focuses of migratory diffusion to other areas of the planet in every time. It still take us to us pay attention on the fact that before migrations were guided technologically from more advanced countries to the least advanced ones (exceptions done to the enormous black slaves contingents brought to America and to the immigrants - Europe coming mainly - that arrived in the United States in second half of the XIX century), in the current times the situation comes inverted, when migrations mainly take place from poor countries and fewer developed to the capitalist world developed above all Occidental Europe and United States (1993: 37-8).

In that context the created incentives to the communication vehicles - that grow as never before and make possible quickly and efficiency the way of life diffusion from the more developed countries to the poorest ones –we can hope migrations will continue to have its course but now in an intensified way being hard to believe in the politics developed success for its effective control. Face to that ENZENSBERGER marks

 

it is possible to see the ‘migration preventive politic‘ project seeking to remove the causes of the emigration, as a philanthropic variant of this idea. For him to have success, would be necessary to eliminate the existent abyss between the rich countries and the poor, or at least to reduce him/it considerably. The task is besides the economical capacity of the nations industrial, same leaving aside the subject of the ecological limits for the growth. Besides, partly some the political will is not detected of promoting a global distribution back. Half century of the calls development politics they make any hope of such a stocking-turn to seem utopian. In 1925, Imre Frenczi, high employee of the League of the Nations, asked like ‘it can never have in the Earth an uniform distribution of people whose traditions, whose standard of living and whose race differs some of the other ones so much, without putting in danger the peace and the humanity's progress '. Nobody still knows how to answer (1993: 13l).

 

In a world where globalization moves forward quickly establishing the market victory and the unemployment levels enlargement because of the technological revolution, it happens that the conflicts become practically inevitable more and more when the global economy shows recession evidences. Among that conflict concrete manifestations for instance we can see the quite expressive European case where it is coming up the Extreme Right Groups amplification of neo-Nazi inspiration whose frequently promote countless terrorist actions to immigrants and refugees as for example the lamentable incidents that have been happening in Germany in relation to the Turks, besides registration cases of frightening violence with cruelty refinements (rapes, beatings etc). In France there is a problem about Algerians; in Italy, conflicts in Lombardia; in Belgium, in Valonia etc. The aggressions are many and diversified, oscillating from a glance discriminatory getting to cocktail molotov release in the immigrants residences, until as we have observed physical violence with mutilations or even deaths, spreading panic and terror waves that seem not to have end and sometimes it leads us to think not exactly to the end of humanity (as perhaps followers of the “ending fashion” appreciated) - but it is not that our perspective... but in the man's progressive not humanize resulting  in barbarian territories effective configuration. The African continent showing several tension focuses perhaps constitute the most contusing evidence of the violence disseminated territorialization around the world, a great social-space fragmentation movement indicator of the globalization contradictory dynamics or  its perverse face.

When we analyze integration politics between countries we can verify that they are essentially about integration among markets and to the market. In become civilized process coin and market constitutes its center of gravity. Men are this reduced by the capitalist logic and the instrumental reason that is its base transformed in its mere instrument. Therefore, the road we are talking about and we are longing to see contains explicit and necessarily a human physiognomy guided by the humanity true needs satisfaction and not of those artificially maids and transmitted in efficient way by publicity vehicles to the capital and market service.

However nowadays capital seems to be ahead politics challenging the sovereignty like a beginning of state authority. We cannot neglect there is a “social action collectivized forms” diversity existence and importance that contribute to intensification this state sovereignty weakness tendency. These actions when they bound in many territories around the world they make advancing the social and political globalization. It is following our perspective about practices consolidation that mark new social-geographical-space tendencies that revitalize and affirm the place scale like privileged locus to accomplishment of a non-institutional state geopolitical. Therefore the fight for the human rights, the environmental movement, the urban social movements among other figure as located forms of collective political action whose potentialities enlarged by its new relate possibilities are also challenging the State-nation. According to Graham SMITH (1996), these social mobilizations are “new spatial to the politics” developed beyond State-nation as political community the ones which progressively acquire prominence in the world political-territorial relationships ambit. Its virtual thing incite a reflection to a gradual construction of a new road to societies and its following territorial organization forms, perhaps liners of new more autonomous social-space construct in relation to the State centralizing powers, until now recognized as the world principal political agent in the territorial organization. As the history is far away from being a road of one-way, this possibility is launched in the horizon.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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